The Effects of Terrorism on State Governance: Armed Struggle in Italy, 1968-1988
Ginevra Maria Sole Bruno
As the scope and intensity of terrorist attacks increase globally, it is imperative to examine the effects of counter-terrorism measures not only on the potential terrorist but also on those who administer them. This thesis analyzes the effects of terrorism on state governance. Examining political terrorism in Italy, 1968-1988, a period of intensified armed struggle, I analyze state governance capacity before and after the assassinations of Aldo Moro and Fulvio Croce. Drawing on government documents, media, and the National Institute of Statistics, I find that terrorist attacks negatively impact fiscal policies: efforts to countervail terrorism reduce state government budgets, thus undermining the efficiency of local governments which are then disrupted by social unrest. Efforts to strengthen citizen security can, paradoxically, result in increased domestic instability. This finding has implications for theories of state capacity and governance and draws attention to the need for counter-terrorism measures that do not endanger state efficiency.
Key words: terrorism, state governance, Red Brigades, Italy, modus operandi