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Conceptual Background

Aid Agencies

The Yugoslav Case

Aid Agencies

A bewildering array of supra-, inter-, and non-governmental, as well as governmental actors have been involved in interventions in the former Yugoslavia. They include:

• The World Bank

• The United Nations (through many agencies, including most prominently UNDP and UNHCR, and also the administration set up to administer Kosovo, UNMIK)

• The European Union – acting in concert, and its members acting individually


• The United States (through its military forces, the State Department, the United States Agency for International Development)

• Government-funded Foundations, such as the National Endowment for Democracy, or the German

• Major charities, including for example Oxfam, Save the Children.

• International non-governmental non-profit organizations, such as CHF International (US), or Pax Christi (Netherlands).

• International for-profit non-governmental organizations, such as Louis Berger (a private consulting group), and Kellogg Brown and Root.

The situation in the former Yugoslavia has generated different kinds of relationships between and within these entities.  For example, many United States-based non-governmental organizations receive major funding from USAID, which is in turn accountable to the State Department, which reports to the US Congress. The result is complicated resource flows, in which substantial amounts of money are spent on management and administration costs by different intermediaries in the “aid chain.”

Sample of INGOs active in Macedonia 1993–2006


"banner" activity

years active

key donor

National Democratic Institute NDI

political party development



Search for Common Ground SFCG

Conflict resolution skills through childrens media


Swiss government, USAID

Institute for Sustainable Communities ISC

NGO support and capacity building



Nansen Dialogue Center NDC

Interethnic education and dialogue


Norwegian government

European Centre for Minority Issues ECMI

Roma rights


Norwegian  and Danish governments, SIDA