Watson Institute for International and Public Affairs
Costs of War

Costs of the U.S.-Led War in Iraq Since 2003

March 19, 2023 will mark 20 years since the United States invaded Iraq. The conflict that followed has taken the lives of hundreds of thousands of Iraqis and more than 4,500 U.S. service members, while the reverberating effects continue to kill and sicken large numbers of Iraqis, and untold numbers still suffer from physical and mental wounds and war-related trauma. This military intervention caused massive destruction and regional instability and led to the rise of ISIS and violent extremism in the region that persists to this day.

The following list includes many Costs of War papers that directly address the costs of the U.S.-led war in Iraq. Other papers on the website address the costs of the post-9/11 wars, more generally, including in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Somalia, Syria, Yemen, and elsewhere.

Human Cost of Post-9/11 Wars: Direct War Deaths in Major War Zones, Afghanistan and Pakistan (October 2001 – October 2019) Iraq (March 2003 – October 2019); Syria (September 2014-October 2019); Yemen (October 2002-October 2019); and Other. Crawford, Neta; Lutz, Catherine. 2021.

Profits of War: Corporate Beneficiaries of the Post-9/11 Pentagon Spending Surge. Hartung, William. Center for International Policy. 2021

Creating Refugees: Displacement Caused by the United States’ Post-9/11 Wars. David Vine, Cala Coffman, Katalina Khoury, Madison Lovasz, Helen Bush, Rachael Leduc, and Jennifer Walkup. 2021.

The Human Cost of U.S. Interventions in Iraq: A History from the 1960s through the Post-9/11 Wars. Saleh, Zainab. 2020.