This paper presents an analysis of relations between indigenous peoples and the Nation-State in Brazil from the early twentieth century to the present, examining the standards of governance established by government policies directed at these communities, rights recognition, and ongoing development initiatives. Under tutelage, indigenous peoples were considered relatively incapable for civil life, needing the guardianship of a state agency whose functions implied defining indigeneity and establishing and governing small reservations where indigenous peoples were ideally expected to become Brazilian rural wage laborers. Under the participation model, indigenous peoples are able to define their indigeneity, act as full citizens, and have their traditional lands delineated according to their uses and customs. However, true basis for participation implies a knowledge of Brazilian and international politics that indigenous peoples are still in the process of acquiring. Through this gap between ideal and actual means to participate, tutelary mediation of churches, universities and NGOs, as well as of public agencies, may be reintroduced in the interethnic scene, bringing to light the contradictions of a colonial history that has yet not been overcome.
12p.m. – 1:30p.m. McKinney Conference Room, Watson Institute, 111 Thayer Street